Cur Deus Homo Index

I’m still catching my breath from finishing up the academic year and gearing myself up to tackle the second volume of Cur Deus Homo.  To keep the ball rolling, here’s a link to a new page on my side bar that coordinates all my previous posts on the subject.  “One Day” I will take the time to clean it up and make it pretty, assuming I don’t try to convert the posts into articles for academia.edu.

Lots of parts still need a re-write, especially toward the end as I was straining to finish book one before the end of the school year.  Hopefully this summer will give me a few windows of opportunity.

Cur Deus Homo Collection here.

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Cur Deus Homo I.19-25

(Continuing from our digression on angels in CDH I.16-18)

“By what reason or necessity did God become man and by His death, just as we believe and profess, return life to the world when He was able to do this through another person, either angelic or human, or by His will alone?” (CDH I.1)

What Anselm has covered so far:

  1. Sin is a problem that must be fixed.  God cannot ignore it or His plan would fail.
  2. God cannot delegate this task to another creature or we would no longer be servants of God alone and equal to the holy angels.
  3. Sin is a problem of justice.  Every injustice has a primary fault–depriving someone of their due–and a secondary fault–damaging that person’s honor.  Each of these facets of injustice cause the order of the universe to be disrupted.  Until each issue has been resolved, disorder reigns.
  4. There are only two ways to resolve the secondary damage to honor: punishment and satisfaction.
  5. The punishment of hell fails to re-order the universe because, by resolving one disorder, another is caused or perpetuated.

So that brings us to the most famous part of Anselm’s argument, wherein he addresses the problem of satisfaction.  This is why Anselm’s argument is often referred to as the “Satisfaction Theory.”

The Analogy of the Pearl

Before diving into his analysis of the satisfaction horn, Anselm returns to the idea that God cannot simply ignore the problem of sin.  He refreshes the dilemma by relating the problem of sin in the form of a short allegory. Continue reading Cur Deus Homo I.19-25

Cur Deus Homo I.16-18

(Continuing from justice and order in CDH I.11-15)

“By what reason or necessity did God become man and by His death, just as we believe and profess, return life to the world when He was able to do this through another person, either angelic or human, or by His will alone?” (CDH I.1)

Angels.  The answer is angels!

In order to close out his discussion of punishment Anselm has to show hell’s insufficiency for restoring order to the universe.  His strong case for punishment as an instrument of order and beauty in chapters fourteen and fifteen makes that difficult.  If it works so well, why not just let the punishment of hell regulate the order and beauty of the universe and be done with the problem of justice?

The problem, it turns out, is not intrinsic to punishment itself.  Instead the punishment of hell conflicts with God’s original plan for mankind and the universe.  Anselm alludes to this divine plan way back in chapters four and five when setting the initial argument with Boso and insisting that God must do something about sin.  In chapters sixteen through eighteen, Anselm returns to that idea and makes the plan explicit.

Working from his favorite Patristic source, St. Augustine, Anselm extends the idea about the order and beauty of the universe.  As God is supremely wise, all that He does must be supremely orderly and proportional–beautiful, as we have said many times.  Part of the order and beauty of the universe, indeed the pinnacle of that order and beauty, is the City of God, the kingdom of heaven itself.  It is the signet of perfection; that anything detract from this perfection is impossible.

The supreme order and beauty of the City of God no doubt has many aspects, but Anselm focuses on one in particular: it has an ideal number of citizens.  No one can know this number save God, but Anselm commits to there being such a number.  That’s a big problem, since sin destroyed that ideal number.

No, not the sin of Adam.  The sin of the angels. Continue reading Cur Deus Homo I.16-18

Cur Deus Homo I.11-15

(Continuing from the excursus on CDH I.6-10)

“By what reason or necessity did God become man and by His death, just as we believe and profess, return life to the world when He was able to do this through another person, either angelic or human, or by His will alone?” (CDH I.1)

The argument of Cur Deus Homo begins in earnest in chapter eleven.  It’s possible to stumble through the first ten chapters and still more or less understand St. Anselm’s book, but anyone not understanding these next few chapters will be absolutely incapable of understanding the rest of the book.  This is where the detail work begins.  Errors at this stage are fatal.  Anyone looking to take down the argument should start taking careful notes from here on out.

Anselm is going to propose a theory of justice–often called the Satisfaction Theory, for reasons that are about to be very obvious–and then use that theory to create a dilemma.  In the technical sense a dilemma is a set of mutually exclusive propositions A and B that exhaust all the possible options.  You can only choose one of the two options and you must choose.  For the rest of the book Anselm plans to exploit that dilemma to prove the necessity of the Incarnation.  The way he does this is a little strange, but we’ll comment on that as the argument goes along. Continue reading Cur Deus Homo I.11-15

Cur Deus Homo I.6-10

(continuing from the initial stages of the dialogue in CDH I.3-5)

“By what reason or necessity did God become man and by His death, just as we believe and profess, return life to the world when He was able to do this through another person, either angelic or human, or by His will alone?” (CDH I.1)

I have mixed feelings about presenting the next block of chapters in Cur Deus Homo.  On the one hand I regard these chapters as a messy excursus that adds very little to the overall argument of the book.  As a result I don’t teach these chapters to my students, instead skipping directly to the theory of justice and satisfaction St. Anselm presents in chapter eleven.  If this series were merely a codification of my teaching, I would do the same here.

However, I’m also making the claim that St. Anselm is not particularly interested in the question of how God saves humanity from sin and death.  To skip any part of the text suggests something shifty about my claim, as if I were cooking the books.  Even more importantly, Anselm and Boso discuss Christ’s death and so at least appear to raise some issues about the mechanics of salvation.  Perhaps I only draw the conclusions I do because I skip these chapters!

Anselm and Boso do address some issues relating to my main claim as well as some useful matters of method for the rest of the book.  Rather than straw-manning St. Anselm or giving the appearance thereof, and since these chapters do have a charm of their own, I’ll go ahead and give a commentary on them here.  Keep in mind that this is “untaught analysis”–nothing like the endlessly repeated, student-questioned material from the other sections of text I have covered already or will in the future.

In theory that means this will be a shorter post! Continue reading Cur Deus Homo I.6-10

Cur Deus Homo I.3-5

(Continuing from our opening salvo on CDH I.1-2)

“By what reason or necessity did God become man and by His death, just as we believe and profess, return life to the world when He was able to do this through another person, either angelic or human, or by His will alone?”

Three initial attempts to answer this question bring us successively closer to understanding it.  At each stage Boso challenges Anselm’s answer and forces him to find a more fundamental level.  The three phases of their argument correspond with chapters three through five:

  1. conveniens (ch. 3)
  2. omnipotent planners can’t fail (ch. 4)
  3. whom shall we serve? (ch. 5)

Beauty, then and now

In chapter three Boso re-introduces the question of the book as a non-believer challenge that the Incarnation is unbecoming the divine nature and to attribute such a thing to God is an injustice.  Right off the bat, to understand all that comes next, we have to look more closely at this “unbecoming” idea.  The Latin is videntur non convenire; these things “seem not to convene.”  What’s that mean? Continue reading Cur Deus Homo I.3-5

Cur Deus Homo I.1-2

Cur Deus Homo, or Why the God-Man, is not concerned with the question of how God saves the human race.  Now let’s spend a few posts defending that claim and maybe walking it back a little.

St. Anselm is often called the Father of Scholasticism; the introduction to his masterpiece, Cur Deus Homo, marks him as the Father of Modern Academic Writing.  Academia is full of writing like this, with extraordinary attention to framing the question, managing expectations, anticipating and defusing objections, and generally trying to talk ourselves and our audience out of the project altogether.  Appearing in a work this old seems wildly out of place; there’s something almost neurotic about St. Anselm’s preemptive apologia in this landmark work of Christology.

St. Anselm was a philosopher-monk at heart, a man who wanted nothing better than to meditate in his cell and uncover the mysteries of the Mystery for an audience of one.  Much to his later sorrow, his intellectual greatness and association with that worldly genius, Lanfranc, conspired to draw him into the world of public disputation and argumentative theology.  In an earlier foray into that public arena St. Anselm got burned, fighting over the Trinity and defending himself against accusations of heresy.  It was simply not a mode of discourse that suited his temper.

So when, just a few years later, he sallied forth to answer the masters of Laon in Cur Deus Homo, he began his work with much greater care.  That care must be closely attended so as not to go astray in understanding his subsequent argument. Continue reading Cur Deus Homo I.1-2

Form III Final: Anselmian Dialogue

One of my bright Form III (9th grade) students decided to imitate his older brother and compose his final exam essay question as a dialogue in imitation of St. Anselm’s Cur Deus Homo.  He’s nailed the tone of St. Anselm and thrown back some of Boso’s most sycophantic replies.

Somewhat like my previous Final post from my Quaestio-spinning junior, this answer format puts more focus on his argument and cuts out a lot of flim-flam.  His order of presentation is also quite nice–a good streamlining of St. Anselm’s work.  A fine project: Continue reading Form III Final: Anselmian Dialogue

St. Anselm/John of Fecamp, Oratio XXVIII (for priests)

Oratio XXVIII

Ad Christum

Facienda a sacerdote ante consecrationem corporis Christi

To be done by the priest before the consecration of the Body of Christ

[[There be some rough syntax in here, Latin and English both.  Murderball syntax.  Hulk Smash!]]

O dulcissime Domine Jesu Christe, qui pro mea redemptione crucifixus es et mortuus, ante te est omne desiderium meum, et gemitus meus a te non est absconditus (Psalm 37:10).   Continue reading St. Anselm/John of Fecamp, Oratio XXVIII (for priests)

St. Anselm/John of Fecamp Oratio XXIX (for priests)

Oratio XXIX

Facienda a sacerdote ante missam

To be done by the priest before Mass

Summe Sacerdos et vere Pontifex, qui te obtulisti Deo Patri hostiam puram et immaculatam in ara crucis pro nobis miseris peccatoribus, et qui dedisti nobis carnem tuam ad manducandum et sanguinem tuum ad bibendum, et posuisti mysterium istud in virtute Spiritus tui, dicens: Haec quotienscunque feceritis, in mei memoriam facietis (Luc. XXII, 19).  Rogo per sanguinem tuum pretiosum, magnum salutis nostrae pretium, rogo per hanc miram et inenarrabilem charitatem qua nos miseros et indignos sic amare dignatus es, ut lavares nos a peccatis nostris in sanguine tuo (Apoc. 1, 5), doce me servum tuum indignum, quem etiam inter caetera dona tua ad officium sacerdotale vocare dignatus es nullis meis meritis, sed sola dignatione misericordiae tuae, doce me, quaeso, per Spiritum sanctum tuum tantum tractare mysterium ea reverentia et honore, ea devotione et timore quibus oportet et decet.  Fac me per gratiam tuam semper illud de tanto mysterio credere et intelligere, sentire et firmiter tenere, dicere et cogitare quod tibi placet et quod expedit animae meae.  Intret Spiritus tuus bonus in cor meum, qui sonet ibi sine sono, et sine strepitu verborum loquatur omnem veritatem tantorum mysteriorum; profunda quippe sunt nimis, et sacro tecta velamine.  Propter magnam clementiam tuam concede mihi missarum solemnia mundo corde et pura mente celebrare.  Libera cor meum ab immundis et nefandis, vanis et noxiis cogitationibus.  Muni me beatorum angelorum pia et fida custodia, ac tutela fortissima, ut hostes omnium bonorum confusi discedant.  Per virtutem tanti mysterii, et per manum sancti angeli tui repelle a me et a cunctis servis tuis durissimum spiritum superbiae et caenodoxiae, invidiae et blasphemiae, fornicationis et immunditiae, dubietatis et diffidentiae.  Confundantur qui nos persequuntur, pereant illi qui perdere cuncta festinant.

Highest Priest and true Pontifex, who offered Yourself to God the Father as a victim pure and immaculate on the altar of the cross for us wretched sinners, and who gave to us Your Flesh for eating and Your Blood for drinking, and who established that mystery in the power of Your Spirit, saying: Whensoever shall ye do this, ye shall do in memory of me (Luke 22:19).  I beg through Your Precious Blood, the great price of our salvation, I beg through this marvelous and untellable charity with which You so deign to love us, wretched and unworthy, that You would wash us from our sins in Your Blood (Rev. 1:5), teach me Your unworthy servant, whom also among Your other gifts You have deigned to call to the priestly office, by no merits of my own but only by the deigning of Your mercy, teach me, I seek, through Your Holy Spirit to [tractare] such a mystery with that reverence and honor, with that devotion and fear which are necessary and fitting.  Make me through Your grace ever to believe and to understand something of such great a mystery, to sense and firmly to hold it, to speak and to thank whatever is pleasing to You and what advantages for my soul. Let Your good Spirit enter into my heart, Who sounds there without sound, and without the crash of words speaks all truth of such mysteries; surely they are exceedingly profound, and hidden with a sacred veil.  On account of Your great clemency grant to me to celebrate the solemnities of Masses with clean heart and pure mind.  Free my heart from thoughts unclean and nefarious, vane and noxious.  Fortify me with the pious and faithful guardianship and strongest tutelage of the blessed angels, that the enemies of all goods fall down in confusion.  Through the power of so great a mystery, and through the hand of Your holy angel repel from me and from all You servants the most hardened spirit of pride and vainglory [he’s strangely transliterated instead of the Vulgate’s inanis gloria], envy and blasphemy, fornication and uncleanness, doubt and distrust.  Let them be confounded who persecute us, let them perish who rejoice to destroy all things.

Rex virginum, amator castitatis, coelesti rore benedictionis tuae exstingue in corpore meo fomitem ardentis libidinis, ut maneat in me tenor castitatis corporis et animae.  Mortifica in membris meis carnis stimulos, omnesque libidinosas commotiones et da mihi veram et perpetuam castitatem cum caeteris donis tuis, quae tibi placent in veritate, ut sacrificium laudis casto corpore et mundo corde quotidie valeam tibi offerre.  Quanta enim cordis contritione et lacrymarum fonte, quanta reverentia et tremore, quanta corporis castitate et animae puritate istud divinum et coeleste sacrificium est celebrandum, Domine, ubi caro tua in veritate sumitur, ubi sanguis tuus in veritate bibitur, ubi ima summis conjunguntur, ubi adest sanctorum angelorum praesentia, ubi tu es sacrificium et sacerdos mirabiliter et ineffabiliter?

King of virgins, Lover of chastity, with the heavenly dew of Your blessing extinguish in my body the fomes of burning desire, that there remain in me the tenor of chastity of body and soul.  Mortify in my members the goads of the flesh and all the libidinous commotions, and give to me true and perpetual chastity with the rest of Your gifts, which are pleasing to You in truth, that a sacrifice of praise with chaste body and clean heart daily I may be hale to offer to You.  For with how much contrition of heart and font of tears, how much reverence and tremor, how much chastity of body and purity of soul is that divine and heavenly sacrifice to be celebrated, Lord, where Your flesh is in truth consumed, where Your Blood in truth drunk, where the lowest is to the highest conjoined, where the presence of the holy angels attends, where You are sacrifice and priest marvelously and ineffably?

Quis digne hoc celebrare potest, nisi tu Deus omnipotens offerentem feceris dignum?  Scio, Domine, et vere scio, et idipsum bonitati tuae confiteor quia non sum dignus accedere ad tantum mysterium propter nimia peccata mea, et infinitas negligentias meas.

Who can worthily celebrate this, unless You, God Omnipotent, make the one offering worthy?  I know, Lord, and truly know, and the self-same to Your goodness confess that I am not worthy to approach to so great a mystery on account of my exceeding sins and my infinite negligences.

Sed scio, et veraciter ex toto corde meo credo, ore meo confiteor quia tu potes me facere dignum, qui solus potes facere mundum de immmundo conceptum semine (Job XIV, 4); solus de indignis dignos, de immundis mundos et de peccatoribus justos et sanctos facis.  Per hanc omnipotentiam tuam te rogo, concede mihi peccatori hoc coeleste sacrificium celebrare cum timore et tremore cum cordis puritate et lacrymarum fonte, cum laetitia spiritali et et coelesti gaudio.  Sentiat mens mea dulcedinem beatissimae presentiae tuae, et excubias sanctorum tuorum in circuitu meo.

But I know, and truthfully believe from my whole heart, I confess with my mouth, that You are able to make me worthy, who alone can make clean conception from unclean seed (Job 14:4); You alone make worthy from unworthy, clean from unclean, and just and holy from sinners.  Through this Your omnipotence I beg You, grant to me a sinner to celebrate this heavenly sacrifice with fear and trembling, with purity of heart and font of tears, with spiritual happiness and heavenly joy.  Let my mind sense the sweetness of Your blessed presence and the watchfulness of Your saints around me.

Ego enim memor venerandae passionis tuae accedo ad altare tuum, licet peccator, ut offeram tibi sacrificium quod tu instituisti, et offerri praecepisti in commemorationem tui pro salute nostra (Luc. XXII, 19).  Suscipe illud ergo, quaeso, summe Deus, pro Ecclesia sancta tua, et populo quem acquisisti sanguine tuo.  Et quoniam me peccatorem inter te et eumdem populum tuum medium esse voluisti, licet in me aliquod boni operis testimonium non agnoscas, officium saltem dispensationis creditae non recuses, nec per me indignum eorum salutis pereat pretium, pro quibus victima factus salutaris dignatus es esse redemptio.  Profero ergo, Domine (si digneris propitius intueri), tribulationes plebium, pericula populorum, captivorum gemitus, miserias orphanorum, necessitates peregrinorum, inopiam debilium, desperationes languentium, defectus senum, suspiria juvenum, vota virginum, lamenta viduarum.

For mindful of Your venerable passion I approach to Your altar, a forborn sinner, that I may offer to You the sacrifice which You have instituted and commanded to be offered in commemoration of You for our salvation (Luke 22:19).  To undertake it then, I seek, Higheste God, for Your Holy Church and for the people whom You have acquired by Your Blood.  And since You have willed that I a sinner be medium between You and Your people, permit that You be not unaware of some testimony of good work in me, that at least You not reject the office of credited dispensation, nor through unworthy me should the price of their salvation perish, for whom, become the Victim of Salvation, You deigned to be Redemption.  I offer therefore, Lord (if You will deign to look on graciously), the tribulations of commoners, the dangers of peoples, the weepings of captives, the miseries of orphans, the needs of pilgrims, the poverty of the weak, the desperations of the fainting, the defects of the old, the sighs of the young, the prayers of virgins, the laments of widows.

Tu enim misereris omnium, Domine, et nihil odisti eorum quae fecisti (Sap. XI, 24, 25).  Memorare quae sit nostra substantia, quia tu Pater noster es, quia tu Deus noster es; ne irascaris satis, neque multitudinem viscerum tuorum super nos contineas.  Non enim in justificationibus nostris prosternimus preces ante faciem tuam, sed in miserationibus tuis multis.  Aufer a nobis, Domine, iniquitates nostras, et ignem sancti Spiritus in nobis clementer accende.  Aufer cor lapideum de carne nostra, et da nobis cor carneum (Ezech. XI, 19), quod te timeat, te amet, te diligat, te delectetur, te sequatur, te perfruatur.  Oramus, Domine, clementiam tuam ut sereno vultu familiam tuam, sacri tui nominis officia praestolantem, aspicere digneris, et ut nullius sit irritum votum, nullius vacua postulatio, tu nobis preces suggere quas ipse audire propitius et exaudire delecteris.

For You have mercy on all, Lord, and You hate nothing of the things which You have made (Wisdom 11:24-25).  Remember what is our substance, for You are our Father, for You are our God; be not wrathful to the full, nor hold over us the multitude of your bowels.  For not in our justifications do we prostrate our prayers before Your face, but in Your many mercies.  Bear away from us, Lord, our iniquities, and the fire of the Holy Spirit in us clemently ignite.  Bear away the heart of stone from our flesh and give to us a heart of flesh (Ezekiel 11:19), which fears You, loves You, loves You, delights in You, follows You, thoroughly enjoys You.  We pray, Lord, for Your clemency that with serene face You deign to look upon Your family awaiting the offices of Your sacred Name, and that no one’s prayer be void, no one’s postulation be empty, that You suggest to us the prayers which You Yourself delight to hear and hear propitiously.

Rogamus etiam te, Pater sancte, et pro animabus fidelium defunctorum ut sis illis salus, sanitas, gaudium, et refrigerium, hoc magnum pietatis sacramentum.  Deus meus, sit illis hodie magnum et plenum convivium de te pane vivo, qui de coelo descendisti et das vitam mundo (Joan. VI, 33), de tua carne sancta et benedicta, Agni videlicet immaculati qui tollit peccata mundi (Joan. I, 29), quae de sancto et glorioso beatae virginis Mariae utero est assumpta, et de Spiritu sancto concepta, de illo, inquam, pietatis fonte, per lanceam militis ex tuo sacratissimo latere manavit, ut ex inde refecti et satiati, refrigerati et consolati, exsultent in laude et gloria tua.  Peto clementiam tuam, Deus, ut descendat super illud plenitudo tuae benedictionis, et sanctificatio tuae divinitatis.  Descendat etiam, Domine, illa sancti Spiritus tui invisibilis incomprehensibilisque majestas, sicut quondam in patrum hostias descendebat, qui et oblationes nostras corpus et sanguinem tuum efficiat, et me indignum sacerdotem doceat tantum tractare mysterium cum cordis puritate et lacrymarum devotione, cum reverentia et tremore, ita ut placide et benigne suscipias sacrificium de manibus meis ad salutem omnium tam vivorum quam defunctorum.

We beseech You also, Holy Father, also for the souls of the faithful departed, that You be for them salvation, health, joy, and refreshment, this great Sacrament of Piety.  My God, let there be for them daily a great and full banquet:

  • from You, the Living Bread, Who hath descended from heaven and do give life to the world (John 6:33),
  • from Your holy and blessed flesh, that is, of the spotless Lamb which takes away the sins of the world (John 1:29), which from the holy and glorious womb of the Blessed Virgin Mary was assumed, and conceived from the Holy Spirit,
  • from that font of piety, I say, [which] flowed through the lance of the soldier from Your most sacred side,

in order that, repaired and satiated, refreshed and consoled, they may rejoice in Your praise and glory.  I petition Thy clemency, O God, that it may descend upon [it–that banquet? the altar?], the fullness of your blessing, and the sanctification of Your divinity.  Let it descend also, O Lord, that invisible and incomprehensible majesty of Your Holy Spirit, just as once it descended on the host of fathers, that it may make Your Body and Blood our oblations, and may teach me, unworthy priest, to so conduct the mystery with purity of heart and devotion of tears, with reverence and trembling, so that pleasedly and benignly may You receive the sacrifice from my hands unto the salvation of all both living and deceased alike.

Rogo te, Domine, per ipsum sacrosanctum mysterium corporis et sanguinis tui, quo quotidie in Ecclesia tua pascimur et potamur, abluimur et sanctificamur, atque unius summaeque divinitatis participes efficimur, da mihi virtutes tuas sanctas, quibus repletus bona conscientia ad altare tuum accedam, ita ut haec coelestia sacramenta efficiantur mihi salus et vita.  Tu enim dixisti ore tuo sancto et benedicto: Panis quem ego dabo, caro mea est pro mundi vita.  Si quis manducaverit ex hoc pane, vivet in aeternum (Joan. VI, 52). Panis dulcissime, sana palatum cordis mei, ut sentiam suavitatem amoris tui.  Sana illud ab omni languore ut nullam praeter te sentiat dulcedinem, nullum praeter te quaerat[?] amorem, nullam praeter te amet pulchritudinem.  Panis candidissime, habens omne delectamentum et omnem suavitatis saporem (Sap. XVI, 20), qui nos semper reficis, et nunquam in te deficis, comedat te cor meum, et dulcedine saporis tui repleantur viscera animae meae.  Manducat te angelus ore pleno, manducet te peregrinus homo pro modulo suo, ne deficere possit in via tali recreatus viatico.  Panis sancte, panis vive, panis pulcer, panis munde qui descendisti de coelo et das vitam mundo, veni in cor meum, et munda me ab omni inquinamento carnis et spiritus (II Cor. VII, 1), intra in animam meam, et sanctifica me interius et exterius.  Esto tutamen et continua salus animae meae et corporis mei.  Repelle a me insidiantes mihi hostes; recedant procul a praesentia potentiae tuae ut foris et intus per te munitus recto tramite ad tuum regnum perveniam, ubi non in mysteriis, sicut in hoc tempore agitur, sed facie ad faciem te videbimus (I Cor. XIII, 12), cum tradideris regnum Deo et Patri (I Cor. XV, 24), et erit Deus omnia in omnibus (I Cor. XV, 28).  Tunc enim me de te satiabis satietate mirifica, ita ut nec esuriam, nec sitiam in aeternum.

I ask You, O Lord, through this sacrosanct mystery of Your Body and Blood, by which daily in Your Church we are fed and watered, washed and sanctified, as well as made partakers of the one and highest divinity, give to me Your holy virtues, by which replete with good conscience I may accede to Your altar, so that this heavenly sacrament may cause for me salvation and life.  You Yourself have said with Your holy and blessed mouth: “The bread which I shall give is My flesh for the life of the world.  If any eat of this bread, he shall live unto eternity” (John 6:52).  O Sweetest Bread, heal the palate of my heart, that I may sense the gentleness of Your love.  Heal it from every faintness that it may sense no sweetness before You, may seek no love before You, may love no beauty before You.  O Most Radiant Bread, having all sweetness and all savor of suavity (Wisdom 16:20), You who ever repair us, and never do You fail in Yourself, may my heart consume You, and by the sweetness of Your savor may the bowels of my soul be filled. The angel feeds on You with a full mouth, let pilgrim man feed on You after his own fashion, lest it be possible to fail on such a road although recreated by viaticum. O Holy Bread, Living Bread, Beautiful Bread, Pure Bread Who has descended from heaven and gives life to the world, come into my heart and purify me from every defilement of flesh and spirit (II Cor 7:1), enter into my soul and sanctify me inwardly and outwardly.  Be safety and continual health of (for) my soul and my body.  Repel from me the enemies lying in wait for me; let them fall back afar from the presence of Your power so that within and without through You fortified by the right path to Your reign I may arrive, where not in mysteries–as is done in this time–but face to face will I see You (I Cor 13:12), when You will hand over the Kingdom to God and the Father (I Cor. 15:24), and God will be all in all (I Cor 15:28).  Then indeed shall You satisfy me of Yourself with a marvelous satiety, so that I shall neither hunger nor thirst into eternity.